Agriculture During Industrial Revolution

Agriculture During Industrial Revolution

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Agriculture During Industrial Revolution

“Agricultural revolution”, which grew out of the commercial agriculture of the seventeenth and early eighteenth century was a major factor responsible for the development of industrial capitalism in England, and the “industrial revolution”. In English agriculture, cultivation was by and large market-oriented by this time. It was also specialized according to the convenience of soil, climate, location, and product.

e.g. Clay soil of the Midlands was ideal for wheat production. Commercial production was primarily on the farms of the large tenants of greater and lesser landowners. These proprietors were not concerned with the productivity of their land as much as the rent it yielded, and they instituted major improvements in order to assure themselves of high rents.

Transfer of capital from agriculture to industry was a major requirement for the rise of industrial capitalism in the country. Equally important for the rise of industrial capitalism was the improvement in agricultural productivity and the ample availability of food for seasonal and perennial industrial labor. Such improvement was initially the result of the reorganization of cultivation; but from the end of the eighteenth century, the improvement was also the result of the application of industrial technology for cultivation.

Many technology innovations were introduced into like crop rotation of root crops and legumes (beetroot, clover, sainfoin etc.), which reinvigorated the soil, and allowed farmers to forgo the necessity of leaving it uncultivated (fallow) to avoid soil exhaustion. Mixing marls (soil which was a mixture of carbonate of lime and clay) were used in sandy soil, as a fertilizer. Strips and commons were consolidated to introduce improvements and increase productivity to preserve income levels. This also led to release of sizable sections of the rural population for industrial labor. Besides, Enclosures by Acts of Parliament were undertaken in large number from around 1759. Under-drainage, which was necessary for the cultivation of heavy clay land, was begun extensively in the 1820s.

Agriculture During Industrial Revolution, Agriculture During Industrial Revolution, Agriculture During Industrial Revolution
Agriculture During Industrial Revolution, Agriculture During Industrial Revolution, Agriculture During Industrial Revolution

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