What is Agriculture Biodiversity?
Agricultural biodiversity is a broad term that includes all components of biological diversity of relevance to food and agriculture, and all components of biological diversity that constitute the agricultural ecosystems, also named agro-ecosystems: the variety and variability of animals, plants and micro-organisms, at the genetic, species and ecosystem levels, which are necessary to sustain key functions of the agro-ecosystem, its structure and processes (COP decision V/5, appendix).
Agricultural biodiversity is the outcome of the interactions among genetic resources, the environment and the management systems and practices used by farmers. This is the result of both natural selection and human inventive developed over millennia.The following dimensions of agricultural biodiversity can be identified:1) Genetic resources for food and agriculture:
- Plant genetic resources, including crops, wild plants harvested and managed for food, trees on farms, pasture and rangeland species,
- Animal genetic resources, including domesticated animals, wild animals hunted for food, wild and farmed fish and other aquatic organisms,
- Microbial and fungal genetic resources.
These constitute the main units of production in agriculture, and include cultivated and domesticated species, managed wild plants and animals, as well as wild relatives of cultivated and domesticated species.2) Components of biodiversity that support ecosystem services upon which agriculture is based. These include a diverse range of organisms that contribute, at various scales to, inter alia, nutrient cycling, pest and disease regulation, pollination, pollution and sediment regulation, maintenance of the hydrological cycle, erosion control, and climate regulation and carbon sequestration.3) Abiotic factors, such as local climatic and chemical factors and the physical structure and functioning of ecosystems, which have a determining effect on agricultural biodiversity.4) Socio-economic and cultural dimensions. Agricultural biodiversity is largely shaped and maintained by human activities and management practices, and a large number of people depend on agricultural biodiversity for sustainable livelihoods. These dimensions include traditional and local knowledge of agricultural biodiversity, cultural factors and participatory processes, as well as tourism associated with agricultural landscapes.
These are Agricultural Systems with ENDEMIC CROP CULTIVARS, important for FOOD SECURITY and MAINTENANCE of AGRICULTURAL BIODIVERSITY, linked with Indigenous communities.
Agro-biodiversity Hotspots of India
1. Cold Desert
Western Himalyas covering Ladakh and Kargil. Upper reaches of Lahuai-Spiti districts of Himachal Pradesh.
2. Western Himalayan
Districts of Srinagar,Anantnag,Udhamput,Riasi,Kathna in Jammu & Kashmir, all the districts of Himachal Pradesh except the cold arid region and all the districts of Uttarakhand.
3. Eastern Himalayan
All the districts of Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim and Darjeeling district of West Bengal.
4. Brahmaputra Valley
Dhubri, Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon, Barpeta, Nalbari, Goalpara,
Kamrup,Golaghat,Darrang, Morigaon, Nagaon,Sonitpur,Jorhat, Lakhimpur,Sibsagar,Dibrugarh, Dhemaji and Tinsukia.
5. Khasia-Jaintia-Garo Hills
All the seven districts of Meghalaya,i.e. East Garo Hills,West Garo Hills, South Garo Hills, East Khasi Hills, West Khasi Hills, Jaintia Hills and Ri-Bhoi.
6. North-Eastern Hills
All the districts of Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and the adjoining Cachar and North Cachar districts of Asom.
7. Arid Western
Sikar, Nagaur, Pali, Hanumangarh, Ganganagar, Jalore, Sirohi, Jodhpur, parts of Jaisalmer and Bikaner, Udaipur, Dungarpur, Churu,and Jhunjhunun districts of Rajastahan.
8. Malwa Plateau and Central Highlands
Malwa plateau, Central highlands,the Mewar plateau and semi- arid south-eastern Rajasthan. Shadel, Raisen, Bhopal, Sehore, Shajapur, Indore, Ujjain, Mandasaur, Rajgarh Hoshangabad, Narsinghpur,Jabalpur, Mandla, Umaria districts.
Ahemadabad, Surendranagar, Jamnagar, Rajkot, Porbandar,
Junagadh, Amreli, Bhavnagar, Bharuch, Surat, Navsari, Valsad, Banaskantha and Anand districts of Gujarat.
Districts of Jhansi, Banda, Chitrakoot, Hamirpur, Jalaun and
Lalitpur in Uttar Pradesh and Damoha, Datia, Panna, Sagar, Tikamagarh and Chattarpur in Madhya Pradesh.
11. Upper Gangetic Plains
Districts of Hardoi, Sitapur, Barabanki, Lucknow, Unnao, Rae Bareilly, Kanpur,Kannuj of Central Uttar Pradesh and the districts of Maharajganj, Sidharatnagar, Kushinagar, Deoria, Sant Kabir Nagar, Gorakhpur, Basti of North-eastern Uttar Pradesh.
12. Lower Gangetic Plains
Districts of Paschim Champaran, Purbi Champaran, Gopalganj,
Siwan, Sitamarhi, Muzaffarpur, Saran, Buxar, Bhojpur, Patna,
Rohatas, Jahanabad, Vaishali, Samastipur, Darbangha, Madhubani, Sheohar in North Bihar.
13. Gangetic Delta
Broadly includes the deltaic 24-Parganas districts, and the districts of Hoogly, Howrah, Nadia, Bardhaman, Birbhum and Murshidabad.
Districts of Singhbhum, Gumla, Ranchi, Lohardaga,Palamau and Hazaribagh and Santhal Pargana in Jharkhand and Mayurbhanj district in Orissa.
Districts of Bastar, Bilaspur, Durg, Jashpur, Kabirdham, Kanker, Kirba, Koria, Mahasamund, Kondaigaon, and Rajnangoan of Chattisgarh.
Districts of Malkangiri,Sonabeda,Jeypore, Koraput, Nabrangpur, Kalahandi, Bolangir, Rayagada of Orissa and districts of north eastern Andhra Pradesh i.e. Srikakulam, Vijanagaram and Vizagapatnam.
17. Southern Eastern Ghats
Districts ofChittoor,Ananthapur,Cuddapah and Kurnoolin Andhra
18. Kaveri Districts of Chengalput,South Arcot,North Arcot,Thiuvannamalai, Tiruchirapalli, Pudukottai, Thiruarur, Vellore, Kanchipuram, Dharmapuri,Salem, Namakkal,Karur and Dindigal.
Districts of Jalna, Hingoli, Parbhani, Beed, Nanded, latur, Osmanabad, Solapur,Sangli, Gondia, Gadchiroli in Maharashtra, districts of Adilabad, Karimnagar, Warangal and Khamman in
Andhra Pradesh and districts of Bidar and Gulbarga in Karnataka.
Coastal districts of Thane,Raigad,Ratnagiri,Sindhudurg and part of Sahyadridistricts of Pune,Satara and Kolhapur of Maharashtra, all the districts of Goa and Uttar Kannda district of Karnataka.
Districts of Kasargod, Kannur,Wayanad, Kozikode, Malappuram, Palakkad, Thrissur, ldukki, Ernakulam, Alappuza, Kollam, Kottayam, Pathanamthitta & Thiruvananthpuram in Kerala, Udhagamandalam (Nilgiri) and Kanyakumari districts of Tamil Nadu and districts of Dakshin Kannada, Kodagu and Udipi in Karnataka.
Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep
Source : PPVFRA, New Delhi